Journal of the
Arkansas Academy of Science
the Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science
though it has always been and always will be a
peer-reviewed scientific journal.)
Instructions to Authors
A. General Policies
In order for a manuscript to be considered for publication
in journal, it is the policy of the Arkansas Academy of
least one of the authors of a paper submitted for
publication in the JOURNAL must be a member
of Arkansas Academy of Science,
2) only papers presented at the
annual meeting are eligible for publication,
3) manuscript submission is due at
the annual meeting.
B. General Requirements
The JOURNAL OF THE ARKANSAS ACADEMY OF SCIENCE
is published annually. Original manuscripts should be
submitted either as a feature article or
a shorter general note. Original
manuscripts should contain results of original research,
embody sound principles of scientific investigation, and
present data in a concise yet clear manner. Submitted
manuscripts should not be previously published and not
under consideration for publication elsewhere. The JOURNAL
is willing to consider review articles.
These should be authoritative descriptions of any subject
within the scope of the Academy. Authors of articles and
reviews must refrain from inclusion of previous text and
figures from previous reviews or manuscripts that may
constitute a breach in copyright of the source journal.
Reviews should include enough information from more
up-to-date references to show advancement of the subject,
relative to previously published reviews. During
submission, Corresponding authors should identify into
which classification their manuscript will fall.
style and format, the CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and
Publishers Sixth Edition, published by the Style Manual
Committee, Council of Biology Editors, is a convenient and
widely consulted guide for scientific writers and will be
the authority for most style, format, and grammar
decisions. Special attention should be given to grammar,
consistency in tense, unambiguous reference of pronouns,
and logically placed modifiers. To avoid potential
rejection during editorial review, all prospective authors
are strongly encouraged to submit their manuscripts to
other qualified persons for a friendly review of clarity,
brevity, grammar, and typographical errors before
submitting the manuscript to the JOURNAL.
Authors should rigorously check their manuscript to avoid
accidental plagiarism, and text recycling. Authors should
declare any and all relevant conflicts of interest on
To expedite review, authors should provide the names and
current e-mail address of at least three reviewers within
their field, with whom they have not had a collaboration
in the past 2 years. The authors may wish to provide a
list of potential reviewers to be avoided due to conflicts
C. Review Procedure
Evaluation of a paper submitted to the JOURNAL
begins with critical reading by the Managing Editor. The
manuscript is then submitted to referees for critical
review for scientific content, originality and clarity of
presentation. To expedite review, authors should provide,
in a cover letter, the names and current e-mail address of
at least three reviewers within the appropriate field,
with whom they have not had a collaboration in the past
two years. Potential reviewers that the authors wish to
avoid due to other conflicts of interest can also be
provided. Attention to the preceding paragraphs will also
facilitate the review process. Reviews will be returned to
the author together with a judgement regarding the
acceptability of the manuscript for publication in the
JOURNAL. The authors will be requested to revise
the manuscript where necessary. Time limits for submission
of the manuscript and publication charges will be
finalized in the accompanying letter from the Managing
Editor (see “Proposed timetable for manuscript
processing”). The authors will then be asked to return the
revised manuscript, together with a cover letter detailing
their responses to the reviewers’ comments and changes
made as a result. The corresponding author will be
responsible for submitting the total publication cost of
the paper to the Editor-in-Chief, when the revised
manuscript is sent to the Editor assigned to your
manuscript. Failure to pay the publication charges in a
timely manner will prevent processing of the manuscript.
If the time limits are not met, the paper will be
considered withdrawn by the author. Please note that this
revised manuscript will be the manuscript that will enter
into the bound journal. Thus, authors should carefully
read for errors and omissions so ensure accurate
publication. A page charge will be billed to the author of
errata. All final decisions concerning acceptance or
rejection of a manuscript are made by the Managing Editor
(Ivan H. Still) and/or the Editor-in-Chief (Mostafa
Please note that all manuscript processing, review and
correspondence will be carried out electronically via the
JOURNAL web site. Thus, authors are requested to
add the e-mail addresses of the editors (email@example.com
to their accepted senders’ list to ensure that they
receive all correspondence.
Reprint orders should be placed with the printer, not the
Managing Editor. Information will be supplied nearer
publication of the JOURNAL issue. The authors
will be provided with an electronic copy of their
manuscript after the next annual meeting.
D. Policies To Maintain Quality
Of The Peer Review Process, Academic Honesty And
The JOURNAL adheres to the highest standards
of academic honesty and integrity. Authors of articles
and reviews must refrain from inclusion of previous text
and figures from previous reviews or manuscripts that
may constitute a breach in copyright of the source
journal. Authors of reviews should include enough
information from more up-to-date references to show
advancement of the subject, relative to previously
published reviews. Authors should check their manuscript
rigorously to avoid accidental plagiarism, and text
recycling. Authors should declare any and all
relevant conflicts of interest on their manuscripts.
The JOURNAL maintains a strict peer review
policy with reviewers from relevant fields drawn from
around the world to produce a high quality scientific
publication. Evaluation of a paper submitted to the JOURNAL
begins with critical reading by the Managing Editor. The
manuscript is then submitted to referees for critical
review for scientific content, originality and clarity
of presentation. Editors and reviewers are expected to
declare all potential conflicts of interest that may
affect handling of submitted manuscripts. To expedite
review, authors should provide the names and current
e-mail address of at least three reviewers within their
field, with whom they have not had a collaboration in
the past two years. Authors may wish to provide a list
of potential reviewers, or editorial staff to be avoided
due to conflicts of interest.
Allegations of misconduct will be pursued according to
COPE’s guidelines (available at http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines).
Neither the JOURNAL
editorial board, the University of Arkansas nor
bepress.com accepts responsibility for the opinions or
viewpoints expressed, or for the correctness of facts
Copyright, Licensing, and
The JOURNAL of the
Arkansas Academy of Science is an Open Access journal. The University of Arkansas
Libraries have partnered with the Academy to archive
andmake volumes of the JOURNAL,
and the Proceedings freely available
worldwide online at http://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas/
repository (indexed in the Directory
of Open Access Repositories).
All articles published in the JOURNAL are available for use under the following Creative Commons
license: Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0
International (CC BY-ND 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/). Thus, users
are able read, download, copy, print, distribute,
search, link to the full texts of these articles, or
use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking
prior permission from the publisher or the author.
retain copyright over their material published in the JOURNAL, however appropriate citation of the original article(s)
should be given. Authors may archive
a copy of the final version of their articles published
in the JOURNAL
in their institution’s repository.
F. Proposed Timetable For
It is the policy of the Arkansas Academy of Science that
1) at least one of the authors of a paper submitted for
publication in the JOURNAL must be a member of
Arkansas Academy of Science, 2) only papers presented at
the annual meeting are eligible for publication, and 3)
manuscript submission is due at the annual meeting. Thus,
manuscripts should be submitted to the JOURNAL
two days before the meeting.
After the meeting all
correspondence regarding response to reviews etc. should
be directed to the Managing Editor. Publication charges
($50 per page) are payable by
check (we are unable to accept PO numbers or credit cards)
when the corresponding author returns their response to
the reviewers’ comments. Publication
made payable to the Arkansas Academy of Science,
must be sent to the Editor-in-Chief:
Dr. Mostafa Hemmati, P.O. Box 1950, Russellville, AR
72811. Please note that the corresponding author will be
responsible for the total publication cost of the paper
and will submit one check for the entire remittance by
the set deadline. If page charges are not received by
the deadline, publication of the manuscript will occur
in the following year's JOURNAL volume (i.e.
two years after the meeting at which the data was
presented!) The check must contain the
manuscript number (assigned at the time of submission).
All manuscript processing, review and correspondence
will be carried out electronically. Thus, authors are
requested to add the editors’ e-mail addresses to their
accepted senders’ list to ensure that they receive all
Please note: All manuscripts must be properly formatted
PRIOR to submission as an MS word document.
All manuscripts must be submitted a minimum of 2 days
prior to the annual meeting electronically via: http://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas/,
the JOURNAL website. The entire review and
publication procedure will be handled via the server.
Should you have any problems, please contact the Managing
End of April: Initial editorial review. Associate Editors
End of May: Manuscripts sent to reviewers.
End of July:
reviews received. Editorial decisions made on reviewed
manuscripts. Manuscripts returned to authors for
response to reviewers’ critiques. For accepted
manuscripts, additional details and due dates for
manuscript return will be given in the acceptance
letter. Please email the Managing Editor if you fail to
receive your review by the 31st July.
End of August:
return revised manuscripts to the JOURNAL
website, as per due dates in the acceptance letter,
typically 28 days after editorial decision/reviewers
critiques were sent. Corresponding author submits
publication charges to the Editor-in-Chief (firstname.lastname@example.org):
Mailing address: Mostafa Hemmati, P.O. Box 1950,
Russellville, AR 72811. The Managing Editor will send an
email reminder approximately 1 week prior to the final
The prompt return of revised manuscripts and payment of
publication costs is critical for processing of the JOURNAL
by the JOURNAL staff. If the corresponding
author will be unable to attend to the manuscript within
the framework of this schedule, then it is the
responsibility of the corresponding author to make
arrangements with a coauthor to handle the manuscript. NB.
The corresponding author will be responsible for
submitting the total publication cost of the paper by
August 31st. FAILURE TO PAY the publication charges by the
deadline will prevent processing of the manuscript, and
the manuscript will be added to the manuscripts received
from the following year's meeting.
Preparation of the Manuscript
Format the manuscript as a published
paper. If you are unfamiliar with the JOURNAL,
please access last year's JOURNAL at http://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas
to familiarize yourself with the layout.
1. Use Microsoft Word 2007 or higher
for preparation of the document and the file should be
saved and uploaded as an MS word Document.
The text should be single spaced with
Top and Bottom margins set at 0.9ʺ Left and Right
margins, 0.6ʺ. Except for the Title section, the
manuscript must be submitted in two column format and
the distance between columns should be 0.5ʺ. This can be
performed in MS Word by clicking on "layout" on the
Toolbar and then “Columns” from the drop-down menu. Then
select "two" (columns).
Indent paragraphs and subheadings
Use 11 point font in Times New Roman
for text. Fonts for the rest of the manuscript
Title: 14 point, bold, centered, followed by a single
12 point blank line.
b) Authors’ names: 12 point,
normal, centered. Single line spaced. Separate last
author line from authors' address by a single 10 point
c) Authors’ addresses: 10 point,
italic, centered. Single line spaced. Separate last
author line from corresponding author's email by a
single 10 pt blank line.
d) Corresponding authors email: 10
point, normal, left alignment.
e) Running title: 10 point,
normal, left alignment.
f) Main text: 11 point, justified
left and right.
g) Figure captions: 9 point,
h) Table captions: 11 point
i) Section headings: 11
point, bold, flush left on a separate line, then
insert an 11 pt line space. Section headings are not
j) Subheadings: 11 point,
bold, italic and flush left on a separate line.
5. Set words in italics that
are to be printed in italics (e.g., scientific names).
In scientific text, Arabic numerals
should be used in preference to words when the number
designates anything that can be counted or measured: 3
hypotheses, 7 samples, 20 milligrams. However,
numerals are not used to begin a sentence; spell out the
number, reword the sentence, or join it to a previous
sentence. Also, 2 numeric expressions should not
be placed next to each other in a sentence. The pronoun
“one” is always spelled out.
7. A feature article is 2 or more
pages in length. Most feature articles should
include the following sections: Abstract, Introduction,
Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions,
Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited.
8. A general note is generally
shorter, usually 1 to 2 pages and rarely utilizes
subheadings. A note should have the title at the
top of the first page with the body of the paper
following. Abstracts are not used for general
9. A review article should contain a
short abstract followed by the body of the paper. The
article may be divided into sections if appropriate, and
a final summary or concluding paragraph should be
B. Specific considerations
1. Title section:
(see Fig. 1 below for layout).
Title of a Paper (14 pt, bold,
B.F. Second1, C.G. Third2, and D.H.
Lastauthor1 (12 point font, normal, centered)
of Biology, Henderson State University, Arkadelphia,
2Arkansas Game and Fish
Commission, 915 E. Sevier Street, Benton, AR 72015 (10
point font, italic, centered)
*Correspondence: Email address of the corresponding author
(10 point, normal, left alignment)
Running title: (no more than 65 characters and spaces) (10
point, normal, left alignment)
1. Layout of the title section for a submitted
i. It is important that the title be
short, but informative. If specialized acronyms or
abbreviations are used, the name/term should be first
indicated in full followed by the short form/acronym.
ii. Names of all authors and their
complete mailing addresses should be added under the
Title. Authors names should be in the form "A.M.
Scientist", e.g. I.H. Still. Indicate which
author is the corresponding author by an asterisk, and
then indicate that author’s email address on a separate
line (see A.4 for format.)
iii. Please include a Short Informative
Running title (not to exceed 65 characters and spaces)
that the Managing editor can insert in the header of each
odd numbered page.
iv. Insert a single 10pt blank line after the "Running
Title" and add a Continuous section break.
abstract summarizing in concrete terms the methods,
findings, and implications discussed in the body of the
paper must accompany a feature article (or a review
article). That abstract should be completely
self-explanatory. A short summary abstract should also
be included for any review article. Please review your
title and abstract carefully to make sure they convey
your essential points succinctly and clearly.
sized introduction should be included that succinctly
sets the background and objectives of the research.
4. Materials and Methods
Sufficient details should be included for readers to
repeat the experiment. Where possible reference any
standard methods, or methods that have been used in
previously published papers. Where kits have been used,
methods are not required: include the manufacturer's
name and location in brackets e.g. "RNA was prepared
using the RNeasy Plus Micro Kit (Qiagen, USA)."
5. Tables and figures
(line drawings, graphs, or black and white photographs)
not repeat data contained in the text. Tables,
figures, graphs, pictures, etc. have to be inserted into
the manuscript with "text wrapping" set as "top and
bottom" (not "in line with text"). Figures,
tables, graphs and pictures can occupy one column (3.4ʺ
wide) or a maximum of two columns wide (7.3ʺ). In the
event that a table, a figure, or a photograph requires
larger space than a single column, the two column format
should be ended and the Table/figure should be placed
immediately afterward. The two column format
should continue immediately after the Table/figure. To
save space, where possible place Tables/Figures at the
top or bottom of the column/page.
Tables and figures must be numbered,
and should have titles and legends containing sufficient
detail to make them easily understood. Allow two 9 pt
line spaces above and below figures/tables. Please note
that Figure and Table captions should be placed in the
body of the manuscript text AND NOT in a text box.
caption in 11 point normal should be included. Insert a
solid 1.5 pt line below the caption and at the bottom of
the table. Within tables place a 0.75pt line under table
headings or other divisions. Should the table continue
to another page, do not place a line at the bottom of
the table. On the next page, place the heading again
with a 0.75pt line below, then a 1.5 pt line at the
start of the table on the continued page. Tables can be
inserted as Tables from Excel, but should not be
inserted as pictures from Powerpoint, Photoshop etc., or
from a specialized program.
caption should be written under each figure in 9 point,
normal. Figure 2 shows an example for the format
of a figure inserted into the manuscript. All
figures should be created with applications that are
capable of preparing high- resolution PhotoShop
compatible files. The figure should be appropriately
sized and cropped to fit into either one or two
columns. Figures should be inserted as JPEG, TIFF
images or PhotoShop compatible files. Arrows,
scale bars etc., must be integral to the figure: i.e.
not “added over” the figure once place in the word
document: “independent arrows, etc., will be lost in
manuscript formatting. While the JOURNAL is
printed in black and white, we encourage the inclusion
of color figures and photographs that can be viewed in
the online version. Please note that the figures
directly imported from
PowerPoint frequently show poor
color, font and resolution
issues. Figures generated in Powerpoint should be
converted to a high resolution TIFF or JPEG file (see
your software user's manual for details).
Figure 2. Electric field, η, as a
function of position ξ, within the sheath region for
three different wave speeds, α.
6. Chemical and
recommends the use of the International System of Units
(SI). The metric system of measurements and mass must be
employed. Grams and Kilograms are units of mass
not weight. Non-SI distance measurements are
permitted in parentheses.
data should be reported with the number of significant
figures that reflects the magnitude of experimental
equations, structural formulas and mathematical
equations should be placed between successive lines of
text. Equation numbers must be in parentheses and placed
flush with right-hand margin of the column.
7. Deposition of materials
and sequences in publicly available domains
Cataloguing and deposition of biological specimens into
collections is expected. Publication of manuscripts will
be contingent on a declaration that database accession
numbers and/or voucher specimens will be made available
to interested researchers. Where possible, collector and
voucher number for each specimen should be stated in the
Results section. The location of the collection should
be stated in the Methods section. This will facilitate
easy access should another researcher wish to obtain and
examine the specimen in question.
8. Literature Cited
Authors should use the Name – Year format
as illustrated in The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors,
and Publishers and as shown below. The JOURNAL
will deviate from the form given in the CBE Manual only
in regard to placement of authors’ initials and
abbreviation of journal titles. Initials for
second and following authors will continue to be placed
before the author’s surname. Note that authors’ names
are in bold, single spacing occurs after periods.
If a citation has 9 authors or more, write out the first
7 and append with et al. in the Literature Cited
section. JOURNAL titles should be
written in full. Formats for a journal
article and a book are shown below along with
ii. Please note
how the literature is “cited in text as”, i.e. in the
introduction, results etc. In general, cite in text by
"first author et al." followed by publication
date. DO NOT USE NUMBERS, etc. Also
note that in the Literature Cited section, references
should be single line spaced, justified with second and
following lines indented 0.25". Column break a
reference in Literature Cited that runs into the next
column so that the entire reference is together. Insert
a “Next Page” Section break at the end of the Literature
Accuracy in referencing current
literature is paramount. Authors are encouraged to use a
reference database system such as Reference Manager or
EndNote to enhance accurate citation. Do not cite
abstracts and oral, unpublished presentations.
Unnecessary referencing of the authors own work is
discouraged; where possible the most recent reference
should be quoted and appended with “and references
Author(s). Year. Article Title. Journal
title volume number (issue number): inclusive pages.
Author(s) [or editor(s)].
Year. Title of Book. Publisher name (Place of
publication). Number of pages.
Please note below, that we
have included “cited in text as” to show you the form
of citation in the text, only.
DH. 1993. Rhythmic activity in the
short-tailed vole, Microtus. Journal of Animal Ecology
2:232-8. Cited in text as:
JE Klein, and LJ Fletters.
1992. Complete wetting from polymer mixtures.
Science 258(5080):1122-9. Cited
in text as: (Steiner et al. 1992)
Zheng YF and JYS
Luh. 1989. Optimal load distribution for two
industrial robots handling a single object. ASME
Journal of Dynamic System, Measurement, and Control
Cited in text as: (Zheng and Luh
Expected publication Year. Article Title.
Journal title in press.
Cited in text as: (First author et
al. in press)
Kulawiec M, A Safina, MM
Desouki, IH Still, S-I Matsui, A Bakin, and
KK Singh. 2008. Tumorigenic
transformation of human breast epithelial cells induced
by mitochondrial DNA depletion. Cancer Biology &
Therapy in press.
Cited in text as: (Kulawiec et
al. in press)
Pamphlets, and Brochures
GEP, WG Hunter, and JS Hunter.
1978. Statistics for experiments. J Wiley (NY). 653 p.
Cited in text as: (Box et al.
Gilman AG, TW
Rall, AS Nies, and P Taylor, eds.
1990. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics.
8th ed. Pergamon (NY). 1811 p.
Cited in text as: (Gilman et al.
1989. Robotics in Service. MIT Press Cambridge (MA). 65
Cited in text as: (Engelberger 1989)
Chapter or Other Part with Separate Title but Same
Author(s) – General format is given
or editor(s). Year. Title of book.
Publisher’s name (Place of publication). Kind of part
and its numeration, title of part; pages of part.
Hebel R and MW
Stromberg. 1987. Anatomy of the
laboratory cat. Williams & Wilkins (Baltimore, MA).
Part D, Nervous system; p 55-65.
Singleton S and
BC Bennett. 1997. Handbook of microbiology.
2nd ed. Emmaus (Rodale, PA). Chapter 5, Engineering
plasmids; p 285-96.
Chapter or Other Part with Different Authors –
General format is given first.
of the part. Year. Title of
the part. In: author(s) or editor(s) of the
book. Title of the book. Publisher (Place of
publication). Pages of the part.
1996. Wildlife in patchy environments:
Metapopulations, mosaics, and management. In:
McCullough DR, editor. Metapopulations and
wildlife conservation. Island Press (Washington,
DC). p 506.
Johnson RC and
RL Smith. 1985. Evaluation of
techniques for assessment of mammal populations in
Wisconsin. In: Scott Jr NJ, editor. Mammal
communities. 2nd ed. Pergamon (NY). p
and Theses – General format is given
Date of degree. Title [type of publication –
dissertation or thesis]. Place of institution: name of
institution granting the degree. Total number of pages.
The availability statement includes
information about where the document can be found or
borrowed if the source is not the institution’s own
Stevens WB. 2004.
An ecotoxilogical analysis of stream water in Arkansas
[dissertation]. State University (AR): Arkansas State
University. 159 p.
Millettt PC. 2003. Computer modeling of
the tornado-structure interaction: Investigation of
structural loading on a cubic building [MS
thesis]. Fayetteville (AR): University of
Arkansas. 176 p. Available from: University
of Arkansas Microfilms, Little Rock, AR; AAD74-23.
Conference Proceedings – General
format is given first.
Date of publication. Title of publication or conference.
Name of conference (if not given in
the 2nd element); inclusive dates of the conference;
place of the conference. Place of publication:
publisher. Total number of pages.
Vivian VL, ed.
1995. Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS;
1994 June 10-15; San Diego, CA. Sacramento (CA): Grune
& Stratton. 216 p.
and Technical Reports – General format
is given first.
(Performing organization). Date of publication. Title.
Type report and dates of work. Place of publication:
publisher or sponsoring organization. Report number.
Contract number. Total number of pages. Availability
statement if different from publisher or sponsoring
organization. (Availability statement may be an internet
address for government documents.)
Harris JL and
ME Gordon (Department of Biological Sciences,
University of Mississippi, Oxford MS). 1988.
Status survey of Lampsilis powelli (Lea, 1852). Final
report 1 Aug 86 – 31 Dec 87. Jackson (MS): US Fish and
Wildlife Service, Office of Endangered Species.
Report nr USFW-OES-88-0228. Contract nr
USFW-86-0228. 44+ p.
Journal Articles and Electronic Books
should be cited as standard journal articles and books
except add an availability statement and date of
accession following the page(s):
www.usfw.gov/ozarkstreams. Accessed 29 Nov 2004.
Citation depends on the requirement of the particular
website. Otherwise use the “electronic journal article”
US Geological Survey (USGS).
1979. Drainage areas of streams in Arkansas in the
Ouachita River Basin. Open file report.
Little Rock (AR): USGS. 87 p.
<www.usgs.gov/ouachita> Accessed on 2 Dec
2005. Cited in text as:
Citations are Cited in text as:
(Harris and Gordon 1988; Steiner et al. 1992;
of Obituaries and In Memoriam
Executive Committee and the JOURNALof the
Arkansas Academy of Science welcome the opportunity to
pay appropriate professional honor to our departed
Academy colleagues who have a significant history of
service and support for the Academy and Journal. The
editorial staff will consider obituaries for former
executive committee members to be included in the
Journal. Additional obituaries not meeting these
criteria will be forwarded to be posted on the Academy
website. We would request that paid up members of the
Academy that wish to write an obituary provide a one to
two page professional description of the scientist’s
life that should include details of his/her contribution
to the Academy and publication record. The format should
follow the two column format and 11pt Times New Roman
font. A color or black-and-white photograph to fit in
one column should also be provided.